The First Signal From An Invisible Star Can Explain The Mystery Of Dark Matter

2021-02-24   |   by CusiGO

The gravitational wave signal generated more than 7 billion years ago – the largest signal collected so far – has become one of the most controversial and exciting phenomena in today’s physics, because the laws of the universe should not exist.

In May 2019, two complex detectors that can capture the tiny fluctuations in time and space predicted by Einstein saw the signal.

An international team of hundreds of scientists from two probes – LIGO in the United States and Virgo in Europe – responded to the wave for several months, only a tenth of a second. In September, they came to a conservative, boring conclusion, or “vanilla” as some physicists call it: it’s the result of the fusion of two black holes. But there is a problem. At least one such black hole can’t exist, because the laws of stellar physics are just around the corner. In the minds of many physicists, there are many more dangerous and exciting explanations, because they mean seeing new phenomena, unknown particles, exotic and unexpected things like farbata ice cream.

Today, some scientists from LIGO and Virgo have published a new study. They throw themselves into the swimming pool and give a very dangerous but plausible explanation: this signal is not generated by two black holes, but by two transparent stars composed of particles never observed, which are trillions of times lighter than electrons. Ultralight bosons can theoretically explain one of the biggest mysteries in the universe: what is dark matter, which makes up 27% of the mystery of the universe, while known matter accounts for only 5%?

These stars were theorized in the late 1950s and described in more detail in the following decade. They are objects made up of non luminous particles, just like black holes. But they are not a big black spot in the sky, but completely transparent to our eyes. So far, its existence has not been confirmed because of the lack of necessary technologies and models to explain its behavior.

In May 2019, when gravitational waves that shouldn’t exist are captured, font’s team has been working on a mathematical model that can predict the behavior of boson stars for years. Physicists call them “black hole simulants” because they share properties with them.

Juan Calder รณ n busillo, a theoretical physicist at the University of Valencia and co-author of Virgo, explains: “the biggest difference between the two is that an ultralight boson star has no event horizon (i.e., no destination), so it won’t swallow us and it won’t be able to leave.

Calderon is responsible for the statistical analysis of the new research on gravitational wave signals, which was published in the famous physical review letters today. Nicholas Sanchez guar, a colleague at the University of Lisbon, simulated the objects mathematically. The team compared which model would better explain the signals captured, whether it’s black holes or their own. Calderon explained that the results showed that the second possibility was about eight times more likely than the second.

This is an exciting first result, but very preliminary. Statistically speaking, the probability that what these scientists say is true is about two symbols. But to claim a discovery in physics, you need five symbols: out of nearly two million people, one possibility is wrong.

The most interesting evidence provided by these physicists is that they calculated the mass of the ultralight bosons formed by these stars. Their results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of these particles.

Boson is one of the two basic particles in nature. There are four bosons that transfer forces, and one of them, the famous boson, transfers electromagnetic forces: photons, particles of light. Another famous boson has another function: it brings mass to other elementary particles, the Higgs boson. The rest of matter is made up of another elementary particle, fermion, just like an electron. Here is a description of the basic brick of matter, which constitutes everything we see and touch. This is a model that only describes 5% of the universe. What’s left is something completely unknown: dark matter, 27% of the universe, dark energy, 68%.

Ultralight bosons will live in this unknown field. These particles can only interact with traditional matter through gravity. Calderon explained: “if they exist, they can gather and form dark matter stars. This will explain the impact of dark matter on the universe, which is obvious because without their gravitational push, galaxies like the Milky way will collapse and may not be able to accommodate planets with intelligent life. Proving that ultralight bosons are responsible for these effects will be a historic discovery, because it will open up a new dimension for physics and our understanding of the universe.

The authors of this work are now very cautious. “It’s just a proof of the concept that gravitational waves can be used heretically to discover a new physics,” font explained. “Our research shows that there may be an ultralight boson, which may be dark matter. We are now based on just one example, but we are right about the possibility of a slightly higher black hole, “he pointed out.

When two boson stars collide, they converge to form a larger one, but collapse almost instantaneously to form a black hole. It’s important to prove this, because it will provide a new way to create black holes that don’t need traditional stars. But it’s very difficult to prove that. Calderon explained: “once a black hole is created, it is not made up of anything. It is just a region of the universe. If you enter this region, you can never leave it.” the only way to prove the boson star theory is in the first part of the gravitational wave, which lasts less than one hundredth of a second. “We’re going to have more of these signals soon, and we can apply our model to it to see if what we say makes more sense,” font said.

American physicist Rainer Weiss won the 2017 Nobel Prize in physics for being one of LIGO’s parents. He expressed his views on this work. “There are two unusual things about this gravitational wave signal,” he explained to this newspaper. “It means there are very large masses and frontal collisions. These two phenomena are very rare in all gravitational waves we have detected so far. If we do see a star made up of axions (dark matter particles), we will see more of these signals. The story will evolve over time, “he warned.

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